X Ray Diffraction Crystallography

Autor: Yoshio Waseda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642166358
File Size: 46,99 MB
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X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.

Early Days Of X Ray Crystallography

Autor: André Authier
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199659842
File Size: 66,19 MB
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The modern applications of X-ray crystallography range from drug design to characterisation of high technology materials. This book tells the story of its pioneers and relates how the first crystal structures were determined.

Structure Determination By X Ray Crystallography

Autor: Mark Ladd
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146143954X
File Size: 64,94 MB
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The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.

Dynamical Theory Of X Ray Diffraction

Autor: André Authier
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198528920
File Size: 68,27 MB
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The dynamical theory of diffraction has witnessed exciting developments since the advent of synchrotron radiation. This book provides an up-to-date account of the theory of diffraction and its applications. The first part serves as an introduction to the subject, presenting early developments and the basic results. It is followed by a detailed development of the diffraction and propagation properties of x-rays in perfect crystals and by an extension of the theory to the case of slightly and highly deformed crystals. The last part gives three applications of the theory: X-ray optics for synchrotron radiation, locations of atoms at surfaces, and X-ray diffraction topography. The book is richly illustrated and contains a wide range of references to the literature. It will be a most useful reference work for graduate students, lecturers and researchers.

Principles Of Protein X Ray Crystallography

Autor: Jan Drenth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475730926
File Size: 60,26 MB
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New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields such as basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research that is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive intro ductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one-semester or one-quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases, the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. Charles R. Cantor v Preface to the Second Edition Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, X-ray crystallography of proteins has advanced by improvements in existing techniques and by addition of new techniques.

Crystallography Made Crystal Clear

Autor: Gale Rhodes
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323137784
File Size: 47,15 MB
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Crystallography Made Crystal Clear is designed to meet the need for an X-ray analysis that is between brief textbook sections and complete treatments. The book provides non-crystallographers with an intellectually satisfying explanation of the principles of how protein models are gleaned from X-ray analysis. The understanding of these concepts will foster wise use of the models, including the recognition of the strengths and weaknesses of pictures or computer graphics. Since proteins comprise the majority of the mass of macromolecules in cells and carry out biologically important tasks, the book will be of interest to biologists. Provides accessible descriptions of principles of x-ray crystallography, built on simple foundations for anyone with a basic science background Leads the reader through clear, thorough, unintimidating explanations of the mathematics behind crystallography Explains how to read crystallography papers in research journals If you use computer-generated models of proteins or nucleic acids for: Studying molecular interactions Designing ligands, inhibitors, or drugs Engineering new protein functions Interpreting chemical, kinetic, thermodynamic, or spectroscopic data Studying protein folding Teaching macromolecule structure,and if you want to read new structure papers intelligently; become a wiser user of macromolecular models; and want to introduce undergraduates to the important subject of x-ray crystallography, then this book is for you.

X Ray Diffraction

Autor: Bertram Eugene Warren
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486663173
File Size: 54,16 MB
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Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.

Fifty Years Of X Ray Diffraction

Autor: P.P. Ewald
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146159961X
File Size: 44,77 MB
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Origin, Scope, and Plan of this Book In July 1962 the fiftieth anniversary of Max von Laue's discovery of the Diffraction of X-rays by crystals is going to be celebrated in Munich by a large international group of crystallographers, physi cists, chemists, spectroscopists, biologists, industrialists, and many others who are employing the methods based on Laue's discovery for their own research. The invitation for this celebration will be issued jointly by the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where the discovery was made, by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, where it was first made public, and by the International Union of Crystallo graphy, which is the international organization of the National Committees of Crystallography formed in some 30 countries to repre sent and advance the interests of the 3500 research workers in this field. The year 1912 also is the birth year of two branches of the physical sciences which developed promptly from Laue's discovery, namely X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis which is most closely linked to the names ofW. H. (Sir William) Bragg and W. L. (Sir Lawrence) Bragg, and X-ray Spectroscopy which is associated with the names of W. H. Bragg, H. G. J. Moseley, M. de Broglie and Manne Siegbahn. Crystal Structure Analysis began in November 1912 with the first papers ofW. L. Bragg, then still a student in Cambridge, in which, by analysis of the Laue diagrams _of zinc blende, he determined the correct lattice upon which the structure of this crystal is built.