Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual

Autor: Vernon L. Snoeyink
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471062721
File Size: 66,43 MB
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A first-level text stressing chemistry of natural and polluted water and its application to waste-water treatment. Discusses principles of chemical kinetics, dilute solution equilibria, effects of temperature and ionic strength, and thermodynamics in relation to water chemistry. Strong emphasis given to graphical procedures. Contains numerous example problems.

Modeling The Effect Of Injecting Low Salinity Water On Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs

Autor: Emad W. Al Shalabi
Publisher: Emad W. Al Shalabi
File Size: 21,18 MB
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The low salinity water injection technique (LSWI) has become one of the important research topics in the oil industry because of its possible advantages for improving oil recovery. Several mechanisms describing the LSWI process have been suggested in the literature; however, there is no consensus on a single main mechanism for the low salinity effect on oil recovery. As a result of the latter, there are few models for LSWI and especially for carbonates due to their heterogeneity and complexity. In this research, we proposed a systematic approach for modeling the LSWI effect on oil recovery from carbonates by proposing six different methods for history matching and three different LSWI models for the UTCHEM simulator, empirical, fundamental, and mechanistic LSWI models. The empirical LSWI model uses contact angle measurements and injected water salinity. The fundamental LSWI model captures the effect of LSWI through the trapping number. In the mechanistic LSWI model, we include the effect of different geochemical reactions through Gibbs free energy. Moreover, field-scale predictions of LSWI were performed and followed by a sensitivity analysis for the most influential design parameters using design of experiment (DoE). The LSWI technique was also optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) where a response surface was built. Also, we moved a step further by investigating the combined effect of injecting low salinity water and carbon dioxide on oil recovery from carbonates through modeling of the process and numerical simulations using the UTCOMP simulator. The analysis showed that CO2 is the main controller of the residual oil saturation whereas the low salinity water boosts the oil production rate by increasing the oil relative permeability through wettability alteration towards a more water-wet state. In addition, geochemical modeling of LSWI only and the combined effect of LSWI and CO2 were performed using both UTCHEM and PHREEQC upon which the geochemical model in UTCHEM was modified and validated against PHREEQC. Based on the geochemical interpretation of the LSWI technique, we believe that wettability alteration is the main contributor to the LSWI effect on oil recovery from carbonates by anhydrite dissolution and surface charge change through pH exceeding the point of zero charge.

Oilfield Chemistry And Its Environmental Impact

Autor: Henry A. Craddock
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119244269
File Size: 45,91 MB
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Consolidates the many different chemistries being employed to provide environmentally acceptable products through the upstream oil and gas industry This book discusses the development and application of green chemistry in the oil and gas exploration and production industry over the last 25 years — bringing together the various chemistries that are utilised for creating suitable environmental products. Written by a highly respected consultant to the oil and gas industry — it introduces readers to the principles and development of green chemistry in general, and the regulatory framework specific to the oil and gas sector in the North Sea area and elsewhere in the world. It also explores economic drivers pertaining to the application of green chemistry in the sector. Topics covered in Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact include polymer chemistry, surfactants and amphiphiles, phosphorus chemistry, inorganic salts, low molecular weight organics, silicon chemistry and green solvents. It also looks at sustainability in an extractive industry, examining the approaches used and the other methodologies that could be applied in the development of better chemistries, along with discussions about where the application of green chemistry is leading in this industry sector. Provides the reader with a ready source of reference when considering what chemistries are appropriate for application to oilfield problems and looking for green chemistry solutions Brings together the pertinent regulations which workers in the field will find useful, alongside the chemistries which meet the regulatory requirements Written by a well-known specialist with a combined knowledge of chemistry, manufacturing procedures and environmental issues Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact is an excellent book for oil and gas industry professionals as well as scientists, academic researchers, students and policy makers.

Supramolecular Chemistry At Surfaces

Autor: David B Amabilino
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782622160
File Size: 61,60 MB
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Supramolecular chemistry provides a versatile approach for modifying the structure and function of surfaces, including the formation of clusters, monolayers and films. This can be used in a variety of applications from porous surface systems, to modifiers of interface energy and sensor-based systems. Supramolecular Chemistry at Surfaces covers different methods of preparing and studying self-assembled structures at surfaces and interfaces. The book starts with a general introduction concerning the nature of surfaces followed by specific sections discussing different techniques to characterise surface-based supramolecular systems. Each chapter then goes on to address different surface systems including the surface of water; physisorbed layers at interfaces; chemisorbed layers at interfaces; polyelectrolyte systems; thin films; dynamic systems; and patterning. Written by a leading expert in the field, this is the first book to give a multidisciplinary view of the supramolecular aspects of interfaces providing the reader with an objective summary of all the deposition methods and their characterisation. The book will appeal to students and researchers in supramolecular chemistry, nanoscience, polymer chemistry and physics, surface science and materials science.

Encyclopedia Of Chemical Processing

Autor: Sunggyu Lee
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9780824755577
File Size: 10,36 MB
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Collecting information of vital interest to chemical, polymer, mechanical, electrical, and civil engineers, as well as chemists and chemical researchers, this "Encyclopedia "supplies nearly 350 articles on current design, engineering, science, and manufacturing practices-offering expertly written articles on technologies at the forefront of the field to maximize and enhance the research and production phases of current and emerging chemical manufacturing practices and techniques.

Practical Enhanced Reservoir Engineering

Autor: Abdus Satter
Publisher: PennWell Books
ISBN: 1593700563
File Size: 15,24 MB
Format: PDF
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"This book is intended to be a reservoir engineering book for college students, but it is not the usual college text book. It is a modern and very practical guide offering reservoir engineering fundamentals, advanced reservoir related topics, reservoir simulation fundamentals, and problems and case studies from around the world. It is designed to aid students and professionals alike in their active and important roles throughout the reservoir life cycle (discovery, delineation, development, production, and abandonment), and in the various phases of the reservoir management process (setting strategy, developing plan, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and completing)."--Publisher's website.

Polymer Improved Oil Recovery

Autor: K.S. Sorbie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401130442
File Size: 37,29 MB
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The importance of oil in the world economy cannot be overstated, and methods for recovering oil will be the subject of much scientific and engineering research for many years to come. Even after the application of primary depletion and secondary recovery processes (usually waterflooding), much oil usually remains in a reservoir, and indeed in some heterogeneous reservoir systems as much as 70% of the original oil may remain. Thus, there is an enormous incentive for the development of improved or enhanced methods of oil recovery, aimed at recovering some portion of this remainil)g oil. The techniques used range from 'improved' secondary flooding methods (including polymer and certain gas injection processes) through to 'enhanced' or 'tertiary' methods such as chemical (surfactant, caustic, foam), gas miscible (carbon dioxide, gas reinjection) and thermal (steam soak and drive, in-situ combustion). The distinction between the classification ofthe methods usually refers to the target oil that the process seeks to recover. That is, in 'improved' recovery we are usually aiming to increase the oil sweep efficiency, whereas in 'tertiary' recovery we aim to mobilise and recover residual or capillary trapped oil. There are a few books and collections of articles which give general overviews of improved and enhanced oil recovery methods. However, for each recovery method, there is such a wide range of interconnected issues concerning the chemistry, physics and fluid mechanics of flow in porous media, that rarely are these adequately reviewed.


Autor: American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
File Size: 33,31 MB
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