Reactive Transport Modeling

Autor: Yitian Xiao
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119060028
File Size: 11,78 MB
Format: PDF
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Teaches the application of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for subsurface systems in order to expedite the understanding of the behavior of complex geological systems This book lays out the basic principles and approaches of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for surface and subsurface environments, presenting specific workflows and applications. The techniques discussed are being increasingly commonly used in a wide range of research fields, and the information provided covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and how to apply techniques in specific areas. The need for RTM in engineered facilities, such as nuclear waste repositories or CO2 storage sites, is ever increasing, because the prediction of the future evolution of these systems has become a legal obligation. With increasing recognition of the power of these approaches, and their widening adoption, comes responsibility to ensure appropriate application of available tools. This book aims to provide the requisite understanding of key aspects of RTM, and in doing so help identify and thus avoid potential pitfalls. Reactive Transport Modeling covers: the application of RTM for CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy development; reservoir quality prediction; modeling diagenesis; modeling geochemical processes in oil & gas production; modeling gas hydrate production; reactive transport in fractured and porous media; reactive transport studies for nuclear waste disposal; reactive flow modeling in hydrothermal systems; and modeling biogeochemical processes. Key features include: A comprehensive reference for scientists and practitioners entering the area of reactive transport modeling (RTM) Presented by internationally known experts in the field Covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and hands-on examples for applying techniques in specific areas Teaches readers to appreciate the power of RTM and to stimulate usage and application Reactive Transport Modeling is written for graduate students and researchers in academia, government laboratories, and industry who are interested in applying reactive transport modeling to the topic of their research. The book will also appeal to geochemists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists, earth scientists, environmental engineers, and environmental chemists.

Water Implications Of Biofuels Production In The United States

Autor: Committee on Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030911361X
File Size: 25,95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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National interests in greater energy independence, concurrent with favorable market forces, have driven increased production of corn-based ethanol in the United States and research into the next generation of biofuels. The trend is changing the national agricultural landscape and has raised concerns about potential impacts on the nation's water resources. To help illuminate these issues, the National Research Council held a colloquium on July 12, 2007 in Washington, DC. Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, based in part on discussions at the colloquium, concludes that if projected future increases in use of corn for ethanol production do occur, the increase in harm to water quality could be considerable from the increases in fertilizer use, pesticide use, and soil erosion associated with growing crops such as corn. Water supply problems could also develop, both from the water needed to grow biofuels crops and water used at ethanol processing plants, especially in regions where water supplies are already overdrawn. The production of "cellulosic ethanol," derived from fibrous material such as wheat straw, native grasses, and forest trimmings is expected to have less water quality impact but cannot yet be produced on a commerical scale. To move toward a goal of reducing water impacts of biofuels, a policy bridge will likely be needed to encourage growth of new technologies, best agricultural practies, and the development of traditional and cellulosic crops that require less water and fertilizer and are optimized for fuel production.

Biofuels

Autor: Mark E. Gaffigan
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437923577
File Size: 14,29 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The EPA administers the RFS. This report examines, among other things: (1) the effects of increased biofuels production on U.S. agriculture, environment, and greenhouse gas emissions; (2) federal support for domestic biofuels production; and (3) key challenges in meeting the RFS. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.

Riverbank Filtration

Autor: C. Ray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306481545
File Size: 26,90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.

Environmental Tracers In Subsurface Hydrology

Autor: Peter G. Cook
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461545579
File Size: 11,97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Regional Ground Water Quality

Autor: William M. Alley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471284536
File Size: 79,54 MB
Format: PDF
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General design considerations. Establishing a conceptual framework. Ground-water quality surveys. Geostatistical models. Inorganic chemical processes. Organic chemical concepts. Subsurface microbiology. Geochemical models. Use of environmental isotopes. Nitrate. Organic contaminants. Pesticides. Pathogens. Acid precipitation. Natural radionuclides. Freshwater-salt water environments. Analysis of karst aquifers. Case studies.

Geochemical Processes Weathering And Groundwater Recharge In Catchments

Autor: O.M. Saether
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789054106463
File Size: 17,69 MB
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Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments is a specialist book concerned with the natural processes taking place where water interacts with minerals and organic matter at the earth’s surface, in soils or within aquifers. It focuses on the all important interface between the hydrological and geochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, and is thus particularly relevant to understanding the environment. The book is intended primarily as a reference text for graduate students in Earth Sciences, Hydrology or Environmental Sciences, but will be a useful introduction to those studying Chemistry, Biology or Forestry Studies. Geochemical Processes, Weathering and Groundwater Recharge in Catchments presents an overview of the current status of knowledge of catchment studies, with an outline of the challenges of future research. .