Saving Lives Buying Time

Autor: Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309092183
File Size: 66,83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 6361
Download or Read Book
For more than 50 years, low-cost antimalarial drugs silently saved millions of lives and cured billions of debilitating infections. Today, however, these drugs no longer work against the deadliest form of malaria that exists throughout the world. Malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa-currently just over one million per year-are rising because of increased resistance to the old, inexpensive drugs. Although effective new drugs called "artemisinins" are available, they are unaffordable for the majority of the affected population, even at a cost of one dollar per course. Saving Lives, Buying Time: Economics of Malaria Drugs in an Age of Resistance examines the history of malaria treatments, provides an overview of the current drug crisis, and offers recommendations on maximizing access to and effectiveness of antimalarial drugs. The book finds that most people in endemic countries will not have access to currently effective combination treatments, which should include an artemisinin, without financing from the global community. Without funding for effective treatment, malaria mortality could double over the next 10 to 20 years and transmission will intensify.

Guidelines For The Treatment Of Malaria Third Edition

Autor: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241549122
File Size: 77,82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 8539
Download or Read Book
Malaria remains an important cause of illness and death in children and adults in countries in which it is endemic. Malaria control requires an integrated approach including prevention (primarily vector control) and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial agents. Malaria case management consisting of prompt diagnosis and effective treatment remains a vital component of malaria control and elimination strategies. Since the publication of the first edition of the Guidelines for the treatment of malaria in 2006 and the second edition in 2010 all countries in which P. falciparum malaria is endemic have progressively updated their treatment policy from use of ineffective monotherapy to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). This has contributed substantially to current reductions in global morbidity and mortality from malaria. Unfortunately resistance to artemisinins has arisen recently in P. falciparum in South-East Asia which threatens these gains. This third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria contains updated recommendations based on a firmer evidence base for most antimalarial drugs and in addition include recommendation on the use of drugs to prevent malaria in groups at high risk. The Guidelines provide a framework for designing specific detailed national treatment protocols taking into account local patterns of resistance to antimalarial drugs and health service capacity. It provides recommendations on treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria in all age groups all endemic areas in special populations and several complex situations. In addition on the use of antimalarial drugs as preventive therapy in healthy people living in malaria-endemic areas who are high risk in order to reduce morbidity and mortality from malaria. The Guidelines are designed primarily for policy-makers in ministries of health who formulate country-specific treatment guidelines. Other groups that may find them useful include health professionals and public health and policy specialists that are partners in health or malaria control and the pharmaceutical industry. The treatment recommendations in the main document are brief; for those who wish to study the evidence base in more detail a series of annexes is provided with references to the appropriate sections of the main document.

Antimalarial Chemotherapy

Autor: Philip J. Rosenthal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592591116
File Size: 49,64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 1352
Download or Read Book
Philip Rosenthal, MD, and a panel of leading malaria experts drawn from academia, the military, and international health organizations survey the latest scientific understanding of antimalarial chemotherapy, emphasizing the molecular mechanisms of resistance and the description of important new targets. Their survey covers the current status of malarial and antimalarial chemotherapy, the relevant biology and biochemistry of malaria parasites, the antimalarial drugs currently available, new chemical approaches to chemotherapy, and possible new targets for chemotherapy. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Antimalarial Chemotherapy: Mechanisms of Action, Resistance, and New Directions in Drug Discovery clearly delineates all the basic and clinical research now addressing one of the world's major unresolved disease problems, work that is now powerfully driving the rapid pace of antimalarial drug discovery today.

Treatment And Prevention Of Malaria

Autor: Henry M. Staines
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3034604793
File Size: 65,87 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 126
Download or Read Book
Malaria has defeated previous efforts at eradication and remains a massive global public health problem despite being readily preventable and treatable. It is a devastating disease that also extracts huge economic costs from the poorest countries in endemic regions. Starting with an overview of the disease and its current political, financial and technical context, this Milestones in Drug Therapy volume describes the history, chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, preclinical and clinical use, pharmacokinetics and safety and tolerability of the current range of antimalarial drugs. There is particular emphasis on artemisinins and related peroxides, as these drugs have now become the frontline treatment for malaria. Next generation antimalarials, molecular markers for detecting resistance, the importance of diagnostics and disease prevention are also covered in detail.

Malaria

Autor: Krishna R. Dronamraju
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387282955
File Size: 30,46 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 9670
Download or Read Book
This book was originally conceived at a conference at the University of Turin in Italy. The conference was organized to examine the so-called “Malaria Hypothesis”, that is to say, the higher fitness of t- lassemia heterozygotes in a malarial environment, and to pay tribute to the proponent of that hypothesis, J.B.S. Haldane. Contributors to this book examine certain genetic and evolutionary aspects of malaria which is a major killer of human populations, especially in Africa and Asia. There were attempts to discredit Haldane’s contribution from two directions: (a) it has been suggested that the “Malaria Hypothesis” was known long before Haldane and that there was nothing original about his idea (Lederberg 1999), and that (b) the hypothesis of heterozygote su- riority was first suggested by the Italian biologist Giuseppe Montalenti who communicated his idea to Haldane (Allison 2004). Surely, both c- not be right. In fact, the evidence presented in this book clearly indicates that both are wrong. Haldane’s malaria hypothesis has stimulated a great deal of research on the genetic, evolutionary and epidemiological aspects of malaria d- ing the last 50 years. It has opened up a whole new chapter in the study of infectious diseases. It deserves serious consideration. For helpful discussions we thank Lucio Luzzatto, Alberto Piazza, Guido Modiano and David Roberts.

World Malaria Report 2015

Autor: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241565152
File Size: 76,62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 3857
Download or Read Book
The World Malaria Report 2015 assesses global malaria disease trends and changes in the coverage and financing of malaria control programs between 2000 and 2015. It also summarizes progress towards international targets, and provides regional and country profiles that summarize trends in each WHO region and each country with malaria. The report is produced with the help of WHO regional and country offices, ministries of health in endemic countries, and a broad range of other partners. The data presented are assembled from the 96 countries and territories with ongoing malaria transmission, and a further five countries that have recently eliminated malaria. Most data are those reported for 2014 and 2015, although in some cases projections have been made into 2015, to assess progress towards targets for 2015.

Medicinal Chemistry Of Bioactive Natural Products

Autor: Xiao-Tian Liang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471739332
File Size: 30,39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 4444
Download or Read Book
Current discoveries and research into bioactive natural products Medicinal Chemistry of Bioactive Natural Products provides a much-needed survey of bioactive natural products and their applications in medicinal chemistry. This comprehensive reference features articles by some of the world's leading scientists in the field on discovery, structure elucidation, and elegant synthetic strategies--developed for natural products--with an emphasis on the structure activity relationship of bioactive natural products. The topics have been carefully chosen on the basis of relevance to current research and to importance as clinicially useful agents. Rather than attempting to be a comprehensive encyclopedia of bioactive natural products, Medicinal Chemistry of Bioactive Natural Products guides the reader to the key developments in the field. By providing not only practical detail but a historical perspective on the chemistry and biology of the compounds under consideration, the book serves as a handy resource for researchers in their own work developing pharmaceuticals, and as an inspiring introduction for young scientists to the dynamic field of bioactive natural products research. Enhanced by examples with updated research results, the discussion covers such topics as: * The chemistry and biology of epothilones * Vancomycin and other glycopeptide antibiotic derivates * Antitumor and other related activities of Taxol and its analogs * The antimalarial properties of the traditional Chinese medicine, Quinghaosu (artemisinin) * Huperzine A: A natural drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease * The medicinal chemistry of ginkgolides from Ginkgo biloba * Recent progress in Calophyllum coumarins as potent anti-HIV agents * Plant-derived anti-HIV agents and analogs * Chemical synthesis of annonaceous acetogenins and their structurally modified mimics

Modeling Survival Data Extending The Cox Model

Autor: Terry M. Therneau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475732945
File Size: 42,11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 1823
Download or Read Book
This book is for statistical practitioners, particularly those who design and analyze studies for survival and event history data. Building on recent developments motivated by counting process and martingale theory, it shows the reader how to extend the Cox model to analyze multiple/correlated event data using marginal and random effects. The focus is on actual data examples, the analysis and interpretation of results, and computation. The book shows how these new methods can be implemented in SAS and S-Plus, including computer code, worked examples, and data sets.

Artemisia Annua Pharmacology And Biotechnology

Autor: Tariq Aftab
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642410278
File Size: 16,69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 4380
Download or Read Book
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone originally extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is an effective antimalarial agent, particularly for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. However, the concentration of artemisinin in the plant is very low. Because the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is complicated and not economically feasible in view of the poor yield of the drug, the intact plant remains the only viable source of artemisinin production. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua to reduce the cost of artemisinin based antimalarial drugs. Plant scientists have focused their efforts on A. annua for a higher artemisinin crop yield. With the present volume, we are bringing together the research which is being done on this plant throughout the world and future possibilities for scientists and researchers who want to work on it.

Drug Discovery In Africa

Autor: Kelly Chibale
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642281753
File Size: 47,91 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 8740
Download or Read Book
Drug discovery originating in Africa has the potential to provide significantly improved treatment of endemic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. This book critically reviews the current status of drug discovery research and development in Africa, for diseases that are a major threat to the health of people living in Africa. Compiled by leading African and international experts, this book presents the science and strategies of modern drug discovery. It explores how the use of natural products and traditional medicines can benefit from conventional drug discovery approaches, and proposes solutions to current technological, infrastructural, human resources, and economic challenges, which are presented when attempting to engage in full-scale drug discovery. Topics addressed are varied; from African medicinal plants to marine bioprospecting, pharmacogenetics and the use of nanotechnology. This book brings together for the first time a collection of strategies and techniques that need to be considered when developing drugs in an African setting. It is an unprecedented and truly international effort, highlighting the remarkable effort made so far in the area of drug discovery research by African scientists, and scientists from other parts of the world working on African health problems.