Silent Spill

Autor: Thomas D. Beamish
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262261708
File Size: 75,24 MB
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In the Guadalupe Dunes, 170 miles north of Los Angeles and 250 miles south of San Francisco, an oil spill persisted unattended for 38 years. Over the period 1990-1996, the national press devoted 504 stories to the Exxon Valdez accident and a mere nine to the Guadalupe spill -- even though the latter is most likely the nation's largest recorded oil spill. Although it was known to oil workers in the field where it originated, to visiting regulators, and to locals who frequented the beach, the Guadalupe spill became troubling only when those involved could no longer view the sight and smell of petroleum as normal. This book recounts how this change in perception finally took place after nearly four decades and what form the response took.Taking a sociological perspective, Thomas Beamish examines the organizational culture of the Unocal Corporation (whose oil fields produced the leakage), the interorganizational response of regulatory agencies, and local interpretations of the event. He applies notions of social organization, social stability, and social inertia to the kind of environmental degradation represented by the Guadalupe spill. More important, he uses the Guadalupe Dunes case as the basis for a broader study of environmental "blind spots." He argues that many of our most pressing pollution problems go unacknowledged because they do not cause large-scale social disruption or dramatic visible destruction of the sort that triggers responses. Finally, he develops a model of social accommodation that helps explain why human systems seem inclined to do nothing as trouble mounts.

Environmental Justice In Latin America

Autor: David V. Carruthers
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262033720
File Size: 13,69 MB
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Scholars and activists investigate the emergence of a distinctively Latin Americanenvironmental justice movement, offering analysis and case studies that illustrate the connectionsbetween popular environmental mobilization and social justice in the region.

The Environmental Advantages Of Cities

Autor: William B. Meyer
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262518465
File Size: 19,51 MB
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Conventional wisdom about the environmental impact of cities holds that urbanizationand environmental quality are necessarily at odds. Cities are seen to be sites of ecologicaldisruption, consuming a disproportionate share of natural resources, producing high levels ofpollution, and concentrating harmful emissions precisely where the population is most concentrated.Cities appear to be particularly vulnerable to natural disasters, to be inherently at risk fromoutbreaks of infectious diseases, and even to offer dysfunctional and unnatural settings for humanlife. In this book, William Meyer tests these widely held beliefs against the evidence. Borrowingsome useful terminology from the public health literature, Meyer weighs instances of "urbanpenalty" against those of "urban advantage." He finds that many supposed urbanenvironmental penalties are illusory, based on commonsense preconceptions and not on solid evidence.In fact, greater degrees of "urbanness" often offer advantages rather than penalties. Thecharacteristic compactness of cities, for example, lessens the pressure on ecological systems andenables resource consumption to be more efficient. On the whole, Meyer reports, cities offer greatersafety from environmental hazards (geophysical, technological, and biological) than more dispersedsettlement does. In fact, the city-defining characteristics widely supposed to result inenvironmental penalties do much to account for cities' environmental advantages. As of 2008(according to U.N. statistics), more people live in cities than in rural areas. Meyer's analysisclarifies the effects of such a profound shift, covering a full range of environmental issues inurban settings. The hardcover edition does not include a dust jacket.

City Cycling

Autor: John Pucher
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262304996
File Size: 17,69 MB
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Bicycling in cities is booming, for many reasons: health and environmental benefits, time and cost savings, more and better bike lanes and paths, innovative bike sharing programs, and the sheer fun of riding. City Cycling offers a guide to this urban cycling renaissance, with the goal of promoting cycling as sustainable urban transportation available to everyone. It reports on cycling trends and policies in cities in North America, Europe, and Australia, and offers information on such topics as cycling safety, cycling infrastructure provisions including bikeways and bike parking, the wide range of bike designs and bike equipment, integration of cycling with public transportation, and promoting cycling for women and children. City Cycling emphasizes that bicycling should not be limited to those who are highly trained, extremely fit, and daring enough to battle traffic on busy roads. The chapters describe ways to make city cycling feasible, convenient, and safe for commutes to work and school, shopping trips, visits, and other daily transportation needs. The book also offers detailed examinations and illustrations of cycling conditions in different urban environments: small cities (including Davis, California, and Delft, the Netherlands), large cities (including Sydney, Chicago, Toronto and Berlin), and "megacities" (London, New York, Paris, and Tokyo). These chapters offer a closer look at how cities both with and without historical cycling cultures have developed cycling programs over time. The book makes clear that successful promotion of city cycling depends on coordinating infrastructure, programs, and government policies.

Hybrid Nature

Autor: Daniel Schneider
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016443
File Size: 15,87 MB
Format: PDF
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Biological sewage treatment, like electricity, power generation, telephones, and masstransit, has been a key technology and a major part of the urban infrastructure since the latenineteenth century. But sewage treatment plants are not only a ubiquitous component of the moderncity, they are also ecosystems--a hybrid variety that incorporates elements of both nature andindustry and embodies multiple contradictions. In Hybrid Nature, Daniel Schneider offers anenvironmental history of the biological sewage treatment plant in the United States and England,viewing it as an early and influential example of an industrial ecosystem. The sewage treatmentplant relies on microorganisms and other plants and animals but differs from a natural ecosystem inthe extent of human intervention in its creation and management. Schneider explores the relationshipbetween society and nature in the industrial ecosystem and the contradictions that define it[: thenaturalization of industry versus the industrialization of nature; the public interest versusprivate (patented) technology; engineers versus bacterial and human labor; and purification versusprofits in the marketing of sewage fertilizer.] Schneider also describes biotechnology's directconnections to the history of sewage treatment, and how genetic engineering is extending the reachesof the industrial ecosystem to such "natural" ecosystems as oceans, rivers, and forests.In a conclusion that shows how industrial ecosystems continue to evolve, Schneider discusses JohnTodd's Living Machine, a natural purification method of sewage treatment, as the embodiment of thecontradictions of the industrial ecosystem. The hardcover edition does not includea dust jacket.

Silent Spring

Autor: Rachel Carson
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618249060
File Size: 28,11 MB
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Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.

Urban Place

Autor: Peggy F. Barlett
Publisher: The MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262025867
File Size: 62,19 MB
Format: PDF
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Cross-disciplinary studies find that reconnections to place and to the natural world, which are emerging through urban sustainability efforts, build community and political action and have important medical and psychological health benefits.

The Code Of The City

Autor: Eran Ben-Joseph
Publisher: The MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262025881
File Size: 10,57 MB
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Traces the evolution of urban development codes and standards, examines their effect on city planning and design, and proposes alternatives that will encourage innovation.