Renewable Energy Desalination

Autor: Bekele Debele Negewo
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821394576
File Size: 79,21 MB
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The book looks at water availability and water demand in various sectors till 2050, presenting a methodology to prioritize options both on the demand and on the supply side, with a special focus on renewable energy desalination.

Social Entrepreneurship In The Middle East

Autor: Dima Jamali
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137395362
File Size: 49,25 MB
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This two-volume book unveils trends, strengths, weaknesses and overall dynamics and implications of social entrepreneurship in the Middle East region, whilst identifying both opportunities and threats facing social entrepreneurship and supplements through a wealth of insights and examples inspired from practice and current applications.

Beyond Scarcity

Autor: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464811814
File Size: 74,43 MB
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Water has always been a source of risks and opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet rapidly changing socioeconomic, political, and environmental conditions make water security a different, and more urgent, challenge than ever before. This report shows that achieving water security means much more than coping with water scarcity. It means managing water resources in a sustainable, efficient, and equitable way. It also involves delivering water services reliably and affordably, to reinforce relationships between service providers and water users and contribute to a renewed social contract. Water security also entails mitigating water-related risks such as floods and droughts. Water security is an urgent target, but it is also a target within reach. A host of potential solutions to the region’s water management challenges exist. To make these solutions work, clear incentives are needed to change the way water is managed, conserved, and allocated. To make these solutions work, countries in the region will also need to better engage water users, civil society, and youth. The failure of policies to address water challenges can have severe impacts on people’s well-being and political stability. The strategic question for the region is whether countries will act with foresight and resolve to strengthen water security, or whether they will wait to react to the inevitable disruptions of water crises.

Privilege Resistant Policies In The Middle East And North Africa

Autor: Syed Akhtar Mahmood
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 146481208X
File Size: 27,93 MB
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Renewing the social contract, one of the pillars of the new World Bank Group strategy for the Middle East and North Africa, requires a new development model built on greater trust; openness, transparency, inclusive and accountable service delivery; and a stronger private sector that can create jobs and opportunities for the youth of the region. Recent analytic work trying to explain weak job creation and insufficient private sector dynamism in the region point to formal and informal barriers to entry and competition. These barriers privilege a few (often unproductive) incumbents who enjoy a competition-edge due to their connections or ability to influence policy making and delivery. Policy recommendations to date in the field of governance for private sector policymaking have been too general and too removed from concrete, actionable policy outcomes. This report proposes -for the first time- to fill this policy and operational gap by answering the following question: What good governance features should be instilled in the design of economic policies and institutions to help shield them from capture, discretion and arbitrary implementation? The report proposes an innovative conceptual and measurement framework that encapsulates the governance features that could shield policies from capture, discretion and arbitrary enforcement that limits competition. The report offers a menu of operational and technical entry-points to enhance privilege-resistant policy making in a concrete way, that is politically tractable in different country contexts.

Unleashing The Potential Of Renewable Energy In India

Autor: Mikul Bhatia
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821387804
File Size: 27,44 MB
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India has 150GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This study aims to answers critical questions on why renewable energy development is relevant in Indian context, on how much development is economically feasible, and on what needs to be done to realize the potential. The Report is based on data from nearly 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The Report suggests that about 3GW of renewable energy – all from small hydropower is conomically feasible, when the avoided cost of coal-based generation of Rs 3.08/kWh is considered. About 59GW of renewable energy in wind, biomass, and small hydropower is available at less than Rs 5/kWh. The entire cumulative capacity of 68GW in these three technologies can be harnessed at less than Rs 6/kWh. About 62GW—90 percent of cumulative renewable capacity in wind, biomass, and small hydropower—is economically feasible when the environmental premiums on coal are brought into consideration. Realizing the need to bridge this gap, the government has set an ambitious target of installing at least 40GW of additional capacity of renewables in the next 10 years. India has made tremendous strides in establishing overarching policy framework and institutions to bring renewable in the mainstream of energy mix, but significant financial, infrastructure and regulatory barriers to renewable energy development remain which the report sheds light on and suggests possible solutions.

The Water Energy And Food Security Nexus In The Arab Region

Autor: Kamel M. Amer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319484087
File Size: 22,15 MB
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This book investigates the need for a more open and interdisciplinary dialogue on the nexus of food, water and energy security in the Arab region. It argues that achieving sustainable economic development is irretrievably tied to the security of the water–energy–food nexus, which is in turn essential for bringing about sustained peace. Further, it discusses various approaches to achieving these lofty objectives, and offers the following take-away messages: The Arab region is currently under considerable water stress, and the situation will continue to get worse with a number of global changes – most notably those related to climate and regional water distribution. Viable solutions are available in the Arab region and can be implemented through innovative policies, judicious use of new technologies, and stimulating public opinion. Integration across water, energy, and food sectors is obviously needed but achieving it in practice is extremely challenging. There are some gaps in the scientific understanding but at the same time there is a wealth of data and synthesized information that can guide decision-making.

Adaptation To A Changing Climate In The Arab Countries

Autor: Dorte Verner
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821394592
File Size: 34,21 MB
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The Arab region already suffers adverse consequences from climate change. This book provides information on climate change and its impact, as well as technical guidance on climate adaptation options for policy makers.

Knowledge Economies In The Middle East And North Africa

Autor: Jean-Eric Aubert
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821357019
File Size: 25,44 MB
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has been facing considerable economic challenges. Left behind by the industrial revolution, overly dependent on oil resources, and on the fringes of the globalization process, a number of MENA countries have embarked on structural reforms to overcome economic stagnation, mounting unemployment, and increasing poverty. At the same time, there is growing awareness worldwide that the knowledge revolution offers new opportunities for growth resulting from the availability of information and communication technologies and from the advent of a new form of global economic development rooted in the concept of the knowledge economy, which is based on the creation, acquisition, distribution, and use of knowledge. This book, developed from papers prepared for a World Bank sponsored conference, assesses the challenges confronting the regionA's countries and analyzes their readiness for the knowledge economy based on a set of indicators. It provides quantitative analysis to help benchmark the countries against worldwide knowledge economy trends, identifies key implementation issues, and presents relevant policy experiences. The basic policy elements that underpin a strategy to prepare for a knowledge-based economy are discussed, including: the renovation of education systems, the creation of a climate conducive to innovation, and the development of an efficient telecommunications infrastructure as the foundation of a new era. The formulation of national visions and strategies is also discussed. Examples from the region and other parts of the world illustrate the chapters. A set of data that makes it possible to benchmark and position countriesA' readiness for the knowledge economy is presented in an appendix.

Eruptions Of Popular Anger

Autor: Elena lanchovichina
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464811539
File Size: 34,38 MB
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Eruptions of Popular Anger: The Economics of the Arab Spring and Its Aftermath sets out to answer three puzzles—the “Arab inequality†? puzzle of civil uprisings in countries with low-to-moderate and stagnant economic inequality, the “unhappy development†? paradox of increasing dissatisfaction at a time of moderate-to-rapid development, and the paradox of political violence in middle-income countries. The book’s empirical investigation rules out high and rising inequality as a reason for the Arab Spring uprisings. It shows that the real problem was the erosion in middle-class incomes and the growing dissatisfaction with the quality of life, the shortage of formal sector jobs, and corruption. Frustration was particularly high among the young, educated, middle-class residents in urban areas. The old social contract, which had delivered development results in the past and under which Arab governments provided public-sector jobs and subsidized services in return for subdued voice, was unsustainable and malfunctioning. The public sector could no longer be the employer of choice, but the private sector did not generate enough formal sector jobs, because of distortions that constrained its growth and policies that offered advantages to a few firms with political connections, limiting competition and private investment. The breakdown in the social contract increased the premium on freedom and created impetus for political change. This report shows that the Arab Spring revolutions and the subsequent spread of violence and civil wars in the post†“Arab Spring Middle East and North Africa region can be traced to the broken social contract, institutional weaknesses, and regional divisions in societies polarized along ethnic and sectarian lines. The Arab Spring and its aftermath indicate the need for a new social contract under which governments promote private-sector job creation, design public services in a way that holds providers accountable to beneficiaries, and promote inclusion and good governance.

The Future Of Water In African Cities

Autor: Michael Jacobsen
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821397222
File Size: 53,41 MB
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Coping with increasing water demand of rapidly-growing cities in Sub-Saharan Africa will require new and innovative planning and management solutions. This book presents Integrated Urban Water Management, an innovative and holistic approach for all components of the urban water cycle to better adapt to current and future urban water challenges.