Prediction And Perception Of Natural Hazards

Autor: Jaromir Nemec jr.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401581908
File Size: 19,81 MB
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This collection of articles provides a unique overview of the state of the science in the prediction of and response to natural disaster events. The uniqueness of this volume is that it comprises more than just the physical science perspective. For each natural hazard included in this text, social scientists have provided research summaries of how public perceptions are related to the actions that are likely to be undertaken when people are confronted with information about the existence of a natural hazard threat. In this book the reader can find a truly international characterization of both hazard perception and prediction. The American and European contributors provide state-of-the-science overviews of empirically-based research knowledge that expands beyond any national boundaries. This approach has resulted in broader understanding of what is currently known about predicting natural hazard events and predicting how those events, or warnings of them, will be responded to by different types of societies.

Tsunami Progress In Prediction Disaster Prevention And Warning

Autor: Yoshito Tsuchiya †
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401585652
File Size: 19,91 MB
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Under the auspices of the Tsunami Commission of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Coordination Group of the International Oceanographic Commission, the IUGGIIOC International Tsunami Symposium, TSUNAMI '93 (Sixteenth International Tsunami Symposium) was held in Wakayama, Olle of the most historical areas in the prevention of tsunami disasters in Japan, from 23 to 27 August, 1993 by the Organizing Committee of the Japan Society of Ovil Engineers, in commemoration of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. More than one hundred and fifty scientists, engineers and specialists specializing in tsunami research and mitigation of the disasters met from thirteen countries to exchange current information on technica1 advances and to discuss progress in the science. Over hundred and ten abstracts were submitted, most of which were excellent. It was specially agreed in this symposium that in the aftemoon of the third day a usual session for operational tsunami warning systems and plans for improvement is hdd, but three days for presentation and publication restrictions only permit the presentation of less than 78 papers.

International Perspectives On Natural Disasters Occurrence Mitigation And Consequences

Autor: Joseph P. Stoltman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028512
File Size: 16,77 MB
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Reports of natural disasters fill the media with regularity. Places in the world are affected by natural disaster events every day. Such events include earthquakes, cyclones, tsunamis, wildfires – the list could go on for considerable length. In the 1990s there was a concentrated focus on natural disaster information and mitigation during the International Decade for Natural Disasters Reduction (IDNDR). The information was technical and provided the basis for major initiatives in building structures designed for seismic safety, slope stability, severe storm warning systems, and global monitoring and reporting. Mitigation, or planning in the event that natural hazards prevalent in a region would suddenly become natural disasters, was a major goal of the decade-long program. During the IDNDR, this book was conceptualized, and planning for its completion began. The editors saw the need for a book that would reach a broad range of readers who were not actively or directly engaged in natural disasters relief or mitigation planning, but who were in decision-making positions that provided an open window for addressing natural disaster issues. Those people were largely elected public officials, teachers, non-governmental organization staff, and staff of faith-based organizations. Those people, for the most part, come to know very well the human and physical characteristics of the place in which they are based. With that local outreach in mind, the editors intended the book to encourage readers to: 1.

Natural Disasters And Risk Management In Canada

Autor: Nirupama Agrawal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402412832
File Size: 67,72 MB
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These chapters provide valuable and comprehensive information on a variety of hazards, including both scientific and social aspects of disasters. The work introduces the concept of large, medium and small scale hazards, and includes many useful case studies as well as working examples of theoretical concepts. As readers will acknowledge, today the distinction between natural and technological hazards is becoming blurred and a new concept of NATECH hazards is evolving. For permanent hazards (such as tides, wind waves, coastal erosion and climate change) routine predictions are made, whereas for evanescent hazards (including droughts, sea level rise, and coastal subsidence), monitoring of various parameters is the norm. Only for episodic hazards (for example hurricanes, winter storms, tsunamis, and river floods), early warning systems are used, with varying degrees of success. The book explores how, for certain episodic hazards like tornadoes, landslides, forest fires, snow avalanches, and volcanic eruptions, the early warning systems are still in various stages of development. Readers will gain knowledge of theoretical and practical concepts of risk evaluation which assist in better understanding of disaster dynamics, and readers will become better equipped in quantification of disaster risk and vulnerability. The author explains how risk reduction initiatives, taking into account stakeholders’ participation and perception, can provide a roadmap to building resilient communities and cities. This book will be useful not only to practitioners of disaster management but also to research scholars and graduate students. It is highly readable and will appeal more broadly too, to all those who are interested in the very latest thinking on, and expert analysis of, hazards and disasters.

The Use Of Historical Data In Natural Hazard Assessments

Autor: Thomas Glade
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401734909
File Size: 16,27 MB
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Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes cause environmental, economic as well as sociological problems worldwide. In recent years, greater availability of information and sensational media reports of natural hazard occurrence -and in particular in terms of property damage or loss oflife caused by these hazards -resulted in an increase of hazard awareness at a societal level. This increase in public awareness has often been misconstrued as an indication that natural hazards have been occurring more frequently with higher magnitudes in recent years/decades, thus causing more damage than in the past. It is still under debate, however, to which extent recent increases in damage can be related to changing frequencies of natural processes, or whether catastrophic events occur at similar rates as they always had. If the latter is the case, the reason for a greater damage can be related to dramatic population growth over the last century, with a substantial augmentation of population density in some regions. Indeed, the implications are more server in underdeveloped and developing countries, where urbanisation has increasingly occurred in hazard prone areas such as coastal zones, alluvial river plains and steep slopes, thus causing an increase in the exposure to natural hazards. Some groups of society in wealthy countries accept higher risks in order to live directly on top of a cliff or on a steep slope to enjoy panoramic views of the landscape.

Geographical Information Systems In Assessing Natural Hazards

Autor: Alberto Carrara
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401584044
File Size: 21,29 MB
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The 16 contributions to Geographical Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards report on GIS investigations into landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and groundwater pollution hazards. Current methods for predicting extreme events are critically discussed, the emphasis being on the intrinsic complexity of this type of operation, requiring many spatial data, long historical records and sound models of the physical processes involved. Within this context, the potentials and limitations of GIS are addressed in terms of data acquisition, spatial data structures and modelling for simulation of the causal phenomena. Geographic Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards will help investigators in both public and private institutions to evaluate the actual effectiveness of GIS in coping with natural disasters, and to develop new strategies for projects aimed at the assessment and mitigation of the effects of such catastrophic events.

A Safer Future

Autor: U.S. National Committee for the Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309597757
File Size: 67,17 MB
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Initial priorities for U.S. participation in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, declared by the United Nations, are contained in this volume. It focuses on seven issues: hazard and risk assessment; awareness and education; mitigation; preparedness for emergency response; recovery and reconstruction; prediction and warning; learning from disasters; and U.S. participation internationally. The committee presents its philosophy of calls for broad public and private participation to reduce the toll of disasters.

Early Warning Systems For Natural Disaster Reduction

Autor: Jochen Zschau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642559034
File Size: 65,59 MB
Format: PDF
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Written for a broad audience this book offers a comprehensive account of early warning systems for hydro meteorological disasters such as floods and storms, and for geological disasters such as earthquakes. One major theme is the increasingly important role in early warning systems played by the rapidly evolving fields of space and information technology. The authors, all experts in their respective fields, offer a comprehensive and in-depth insight into the current and future perspectives for early warning systems. The text is aimed at decision-makers in the political arena, scientists, engineers and those responsible for public communication and dissemination of warnings.

Facing Hazards And Disasters

Autor: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309164627
File Size: 63,65 MB
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Social science research conducted since the late 1970s has contributed greatly to society's ability to mitigate and adapt to natural, technological, and willful disasters. However, as evidenced by Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, and other recent events, hazards and disaster research and its application could be improved greatly. In particular, more studies should be pursued that compare how the characteristics of different types of events-including predictability, forewarning, magnitude, and duration of impact-affect societal vulnerability and response. This book includes more than thirty recommendations for the hazards and disaster community.