Einstein S Theory Of Unified Fields

Autor: Marie Antoinette Tonnelat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317698800
File Size: 64,73 MB
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First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or ‘didactic exposition’ of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research which together comprise the development of a working model, the author ranges over conservation equations, variational principles, solutions of spherical symmetry, and treats a wide selection of Einstein’s own equations. The final chapter indicates problems associated with the unified field theory, in particular the energy-momentum tensor and geodesics.

Einstein

Autor: Thomas Ryckman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351707892
File Size: 79,73 MB
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Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Less well known is that fundamental philosophical problems, such as concept formation, the role of epistemology in developing and explaining the character of physical theories, and the debate between positivism and realism, played a central role in his thought as a whole. Thomas Ryckman shows that already at the beginning of his career - at a time when the twin pillars of classical physics, Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetism were known to have but limited validity - Einstein sought to advance physical theory by positing certain physical principles as secure footholds. That philosophy produced his greatest triumph, the general theory of relativity, and his greatest failure, an unwillingness to accept quantum mechanics. This book shows that Einstein’s philosophy grew from a lifelong aspiration for a unified theoretical representation encompassing all physical phenomena. It also considers how Einstein’s theories of relativity and criticisms of quantum theory shaped the course of 20th-century philosophy of science. Including a chronology, glossary, chapter summaries, and suggestions for further reading, Einstein is an ideal introduction to this iconic figure in 20th-century science and philosophy. It is essential reading for students of philosophy of science, and is also suitable for those working in related areas such as physics, history of science, or intellectual history.

Biographical Dictionary Of Twentieth Century Philosophers

Autor: Stuart Brown
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415286053
File Size: 73,71 MB
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The biographical dictionary also includes a number of general entries dealing with important schools of philosophy, such as the Vienna Circle, or currents of thought, such as vitalism. These allow the reader to set the individual biographies in the context of the philosophical history of the period. The structure of the book is alphabetical by philosopher. Each entry is identically structured for ease of access and covers: nationality; dates and place of birth and death; philosophical style or school; areas of interest; higher education; significant influences; main appointments; main publications; secondary literature; account of intellectual development and main ideas; and critical reception and impact. At the end of the book a glossary gives accounts of the schools, movements and traditions to which these philosophers belonged, and thorough indexes enable the reader to access the information in several ways: by nationality; by major areas of contribution to philosophy e.g. aesthetics; by major influences on the thinker concerned e.g. Plato, Kant, Wittgenstein.

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

Autor: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
File Size: 44,12 MB
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Fields Of Force

Autor: William Berkson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317699300
File Size: 33,25 MB
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This book describes the picture of reality given by Newton, and the development of the later picture of reality given by field theory. In telling this story, the author explains what problem each scientist faced, and how the process of solving them led to new discoveries. By this method he gives unique insight into the understanding of Einstein’s special theory of relativity, as he explains exactly what problems led to the invention of the theory, and exactly where Einstein’s solution differed from his predecessors’. A similar analysis is given of the discoveries of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and Lorentz. The problem-oriented approach of the book, originally published in 1974, enables the reader to share in the original creative process, and in the excitement of the discoveries. It puts physics problems into new perspective and discusses the philosophical implications of the history - an illuminating account of a great episode in the history of thought.

Einstein For The 21st Century

Autor: Peter Galison
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691135205
File Size: 76,55 MB
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"A stellar array of twenty historians and philosophers, artists and scientists, and writers and critics has contributed to this fascinating examination of Albert Einstein's legacy and its relevance for our times. We are presented with a multifaceted, interpretive effort to understand in novel terms Einstein's science, music, and politics, his relationship to God and aesthetics, and his unusual position at the divide between a now-vanished world and a future that will surely retain deep traces of his unique contributions and personality."--Diana K. Buchwald, Einstein Papers Project, Caltech "Whether serendipitously or by design, many of us have found ourselves involved in some aspect of Einstein's multifaceted legacy. This far-reaching volume of personal essays clarifies why Einstein's persona has been so seductive and so meaningful to us all."--Alice Calaprice, editor of The New Quotable Einstein "Here is the complete Einstein: the physicist, whose many insights and achievements persist at the forefront of modern science; the man, who remained idealistic, philosophically minded, and politically engaged throughout his life; and the iconic visionary, who continues to inspire individual creativity. This is a generous book, rich with detail."--Tony Robbin, author of Shadows of Reality: The Fourth Dimension in Relativity, Cubism, and Modern Thought "Einstein for the 21st Century is accessible to a broad readership and attractive because its distinguished authors, all experts in their disciplines, cover a very large intellectual space. There are so many fine and interesting contributions that there is something for nearly every potential reader."--Helge Kragh, University of Aarhus, Denmark

The Principles Of Electromagnetic Theory And Of Relativity

Autor: M.-A. Tonnelat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401035504
File Size: 49,85 MB
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The aim of this work is to study the principles upon which the classical and relativistic theories of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields are based. Thus, the primary object of the book is to present a simple exposition of Maxwell's theory, of General Relativity and of the link between those two concepts, namely, Special Relativity. In the nineteenth century the notion of a continuous field gradually replaced the idea of action at a distance. The electromagnetic theory that was elaborated at that time covers a very large area of Physics, since it makes possible the description of permanent phenomena, electrostatics and magnetostatics, as well as of variable phenomena. It anticipates the existence of waves, and thereby the theory of light is annexed to this vast domain. It was discovered that Maxwell's equations changed their form when they were related to reference systems associated with two observers in rectilinear uniform motion with respect to each other and each endowed with the absolute time required by classical mechanics. This was a most remarkable fact. Indeed, as soon as attempts were made to verify the results of classical kinematics by means of experiments with the propa gation of light, there arose a whole series of contradictions.

Physical Relativity

Autor: Harvey R. Brown
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199275831
File Size: 40,97 MB
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Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein'streatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines andextends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with therole this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity.Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory withquantum mechanics. Harvey Brown' s new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on these central topics in modern physics.

The Logic Of Scientific Discovery

Autor: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134470029
File Size: 73,48 MB
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Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.

Einstein S Theory Of Relativity

Autor: Max Born
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486142124
File Size: 14,95 MB
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Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.