Discourse On The Origin Of Inequality

Autor: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486111865
File Size: 59,88 MB
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A powerful, passionate explanation of the roots of social inequality, Rousseau's Discourse influenced virtually every major philosopher of the Enlightenment. It remains among the 18th-century's most provocative and frequently studied works.

A Discourse Upon The Origin And The Foundation Of The Inequality Among Mankind

Autor: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
ISBN: 1605203696
File Size: 41,56 MB
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[F]rom the moment one man began to stand in need of another's assistance; from the moment it appeared an advantage for one man to possess the quantity of provisions requisite for two, all equality vanished; property started up; labour became necessary; and boundless forests became smiling fields, which it was found necessary to water with human sweat, and in which slavery and misery were soon seen to sprout out and grow with the fruits of the earth. -from "Second Part" Was man better off before he invented "civil society"? From where does social inequality spring? Did the development of agriculture and technology doom most of humanity to an everlasting enslavement to the tiny minority of the wealthy and the strong? This 1754 essay, written in response to concepts of the "natural man" developed by philosopher Thomas Hobbes, explores such ideas, radical at the time and still considered such today. Rousseau's thoughts continue to be echoed, however, in modern philosophical movements from feminism to environmentalism, and ensure that his examination of the history of human civilization, in its broadest sense, remains vital today. Swiss philosopher JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778) was a dramatic influence on the French revolution, 19th-century communism, the American Founding Fathers, and much modern political thought. His works include Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (1750), Discourse on Political Economy (1755), and The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (1762).

The Major Political Writings Of Jean Jacques Rousseau

Autor: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226921883
File Size: 39,70 MB
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Individualist and communitarian. Anarchist and totalitarian. Classicist and romanticist. Progressive and reactionary. Since the eighteenth century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been said to be all of these things. Few philosophers have been the subject of as much or as intense debate, yet almost everyone agrees that Rousseau is among the most important and influential thinkers in the history of political philosophy. This new edition of his major political writings, published in the year of the three-hundredth anniversary of his birth, renews attention to the perennial importance of Rousseau’s work. The book brings together superb new translations by renowned Rousseau scholar John T. Scott of three of Rousseau’s works: the Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, the Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men, and On the Social Contract. The two Discourses show Rousseau developing his well-known conception of the natural goodness of man and the problems posed by life in society. With the Social Contract, Rousseau became the first major thinker to argue that democracy is the only legitimate form of political organization. Scott’s extensive introduction enhances our understanding of these foundational writings, providing background information, social and historical context, and guidance for interpreting the works. Throughout, translation and editorial notes clarify ideas and terms that might not be immediately familiar to most readers. The three works collected in The Major Political Writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau represent an important contribution to eighteenth-century political theory that has exerted an extensive influence on generations of thinkers, beginning with the leaders of the French Revolution and continuing to the present day. The new translations on offer here will be welcomed by a wide readership of both Rousseau scholars and readers with a general interest in political thought.

Democracy And Its Others

Autor: Jeffrey H. Epstein
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 1501312022
File Size: 21,31 MB
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Today's unprecedented levels of human migration present urgent challenges to traditional conceptualizations of national identity, nation-state sovereignty, and democratic citizenship. Foreigners are commonly viewed as outsiders whose inclusion within or exclusion from "the people†? of the democratic state rests upon whether they benefit or threaten the unity of the nation. Against this instrumentalization of the foreigner, this book traces the historical development of the concepts of sovereignty and foreignness through the thought of philosophers such as Plato, Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, Derrida, and Benhabib in order to show that foreignness is a structural feature of sovereignty that cannot be purged or assimilated. Understood in this light, foreignness allows for new forms of democratic political unity to be imagined that reject local practices which deprive individuals of political membership solely on the basis of national citizenship. This cosmopolitan model for citizenship provides a novel conceptual framework that simultaneously upholds the legal importance of democratic citizenship for political justice while ceaselessly contesting the exclusionary logic of the nation-state that reserves democratic rights for members of the nation alone.

On The Social Contract

Autor: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486111806
File Size: 48,59 MB
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A milestone of political science, Rousseau's 1762 work argues that all government is fundamentally flawed and that modern society is rife with inequality. He proposes an alternative system for the development of self-governing, self-disciplined citizens.

The Communist Manifesto And Other Revolutionary Writings

Autor: Bob Blaisdell
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486113965
File Size: 10,23 MB
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Concise anthology presents broad selection of writings: Declaration of Independence, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Communist Manifesto, plus works by Lenin, Trotsky, Marat, Danton, Rousseau, Gandhi, Mao, other leading figures in revolutionary thought.

Order Wars And Floating Balance

Autor: Andreas Herberg-Rothe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351675869
File Size: 68,11 MB
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A sense of order has irreversibly retreated at the turn of the twenty-first century with the rise of such ancient civilizations as China and India and the militant resurgence of Islamic groups. The United States and like-minded states want to maintain the once-dominant international and global order buttressed by a set of mainly Western value systems and institutions. Nevertheless, challengers have sought to redraw the international and global order according to their own ideas and preferences, while selectively accommodating and taking advantage of the established order. Because of this, the entire world is teetering on the brink of an order war. This book is a synthesis of two separate bodies of thoughts, from Western and East Asian ideas and philosophies respectively. The authors deploy the major ideas of key Western and East Asian thinkers to shed a new light on their usefulness in understanding the transition of global order. They locate new ideas to overcome the contradictions of the late modern world and provide some ideational building blocks of a new global order. The new concepts proposed are: recognition between the great civilizations; a harmony and floating balance between and within contrasts—individual versus community, freedom versus equality—;and mediation between friends and foes. As the former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin put it, "you don’t need to make peace with your friends, you have to make peace with your foes." The values of the West as well as that of the East cannot survive in a globalized world by taking them as absolute, but only by balancing them to those of the other great civilizations of the world.

Discourse On The Origin And The Foundations Of Inequality Among Men

Autor: Jean Jacques Rousseau
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781523326419
File Size: 61,36 MB
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Discourse on the Origin and the Foundations of Inequality Among Men The Second Discourse Jean-Jacques Rousseau Translated by Ian Johnston Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men, also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau first exposes in this work his conception of a human state of nature, presented as a philosophical fiction (like by Thomas Hobbes, unlike by John Locke), and of human perfectibility, an early idea of progress. He then explains the way, according to him, people may have established civil society, which leads him to present private property as the original source and basis of all inequality. In this text, the explanatory notes which appear at the end of the document are provided by the translator. The presence of such notes is indicated by an asterisk in the text which links to the relevant note. Rousseau's notes -- indicated by an Arabic numeral in brackets in the text -- also appear at the conclusion of the main text. The numerals link directly to the appropriate note. Editorial insertions into the text by the translator are indicated by square brackets, e.g., [inserted comment]. Some of Rousseau's longer paragraphs have been divided up into shorter units. Where Rousseau has provided a Latin quotation, this text has the English translation, with a link to the original Latin in the footnote. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), the very famous French philosopher and writer, prepared his Discourse on Inequality (also called the Second Discourse) as an entry in a competition organized by the Academy of Dijon in 1754. He had won first prize in a previous competition (in 1750) with his Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts (the First Discourse), a victory which had helped to make him famous. The Second Discourse did not fare so well in the contest. When the Second Discourse was published again in 1782, Rousseau inserted a few short minor additions into the text. These are included here but are not indicated. Discourse on the Origin and the Foundations of Inequality Among Men by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Citizen of Geneva

First And Second Discourses

Autor: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
ISBN: 9781935238416
File Size: 41,75 MB
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Jean Jacques Rousseau's provocative Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts (1750) launched a vigorous assault on the most cherished beliefs of his age in a passionate indictment of civilized "progress," which, in Rousseau's eyes, has led to a debilitating corruption of human nature and morality. Four years later, Rousseau produced another such assault in the Discourse on the Origins and Foundations of Inequality Among Men. A landmark of political thought, this work argues that human beings are by nature free, happy, and independent, but that social institutions and human inventions have corrupted that condition and brought about all human misery. Many of the details of Rousseau's account are open to dispute, but the revolutionary impact of the argument is beyond doubt: by insisting that our understanding of modern society must be placed on a historical footing, Rousseau invites us to see social injustice and evil as products of pernicious social institutions--not permanent features of an unsatisfactory or fallen condition. He offers no clear solution to the evils he diagnoses, but the implication of his argument is clear: society's most serious problems are caused, not by human nature, but by social institutions, especially property; if we wish to address these problems, we must change those institutions. The unflagging passion, clarity, and rhetorical power of Rousseau's style have inspired many social reformers and revolutionaries. Even today, his words are still cited by those who wish to challenge just how free and happy our citizens are in a society that prides itself on economic and personal freedom and the pursuit of happiness.