Applications Of Model Predictive Control To Vehicle Dynamics For Active Safety And Stability

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Publisher: Stanford University
ISBN:
File Size: 66,20 MB
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Each year in the United States, thousands of lives are lost as a result of loss of control crashes. Production driver assistance systems such as electronic stability control (ESC) have been shown to be highly effective in preventing many of these automotive crashes, yet these systems rely on a sensor suite that yields limited information about the road conditions and vehicle motion. Furthermore, ESC systems rely on gains and thresholds that are tuned to yield good performance without feeling overly restrictive to the driver. This dissertation presents an alternative approach to providing stabilization assistance to the driver which leverages additional information about the vehicle and road that may be obtained with advanced estimation techniques. This new approach is based on well-known and robust vehicle models and utilizes phase plane analysis techniques to describe the limits of stable vehicle handling, alleviating the need for hand tuning of gains and thresholds. The resulting state space within the computed handling boundaries is referred to as a safe handling envelope. In addition to the boundaries being straightforward to calculate, this approach has the benefit of offering a way for the designer of the system to directly adjust the controller to accomodate the preferences of different drivers. A model predictive control structure capable of keeping the vehicle within the safe handling boundaries is the final component of the envelope control system. This dissertation presents the design of a controller that is capable of smoothly and progressively augmenting the driver steering input to enforce the boundaries of the envelope. The model predictive control formulation provides a method for making trade-offs between enforcing the boundaries of the envelope, minimizing disruptive interventions, and tracking the driver's intended trajectory. Experiments with a steer-by-wire test vehicle demonstrate that the model predictive envelope control system is capable of operating in conjunction with a human driver to prevent loss of control of the vehicle while yielding a predictable vehicle trajectory. These experiments considered both the ideal case of state information from a GPS/INS system and an a priori friction estimate as well as a real-world implementation estimating the vehicle states and friction coefficient from steering effort and inertial sensors. Results from the experiments demonstrated a controller that is tolerant of vehicle and tire parameterization errors and works well over a wide range of conditions. When real time sensing of the states and friction properties is enabled, the results show that coupling of the controller and estimator is possible and the model predictive control structure provides a mechanism for minimizing undesirable coupled dynamics through tuning of intuitive controller parameters. The model predictive control structure presented in this dissertation may also be considered as a general framework for vehicle control in conjunction with a human driver. The structure utilized for envelope control may also be used to restrict other vehicle states for safety and stability. Results are presented in this dissertation to show that a model predictive controller can coordinate a secondary actuator to alter the planar states and reduce the energy transferred into the roll modes of the vehicle. The systematic approach to vehicle stabilization presented in this dissertation has the potential to improve the design methodology for future systems and form the basis for the inclusion of more advanced functions as sensing and computing capabilities improve. The envelope control system presented here offers the opportunity to advance the state of the art in stabilization assistance and provides a way to help drivers of all skill levels maintain control of their vehicle.

Modeling Dynamics And Control Of Electrified Vehicles

Autor: Haiping Du
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0128131098
File Size: 31,84 MB
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Modelling, Dynamics and Control of Electrified Vehicles provides a systematic overview of EV-related key components, including batteries, electric motors, ultracapacitors and system-level approaches, such as energy management systems, multi-source energy optimization, transmission design and control, braking system control and vehicle dynamics control. In addition, the book covers selected advanced topics, including Smart Grid and connected vehicles. This book shows how EV work, how to design them, how to save energy with them, and how to maintain their safety. The book aims to be an all-in-one reference for readers who are interested in EVs, or those trying to understand its state-of-the-art technologies and future trends. Offers a comprehensive knowledge of the multidisciplinary research related to EVs and a system-level understanding of technologies Provides the state-of-the-art technologies and future trends Covers the fundamentals of EVs and their methodologies Written by successful researchers that show the deep understanding of EVs

The Control Handbook Second Edition

Autor: William S. Levine
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420073614
File Size: 18,67 MB
Format: PDF
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At publication, The Control Handbook immediately became the definitive resource that engineers working with modern control systems required. Among its many accolades, that first edition was cited by the AAP as the Best Engineering Handbook of 1996. Now, 15 years later, William Levine has once again compiled the most comprehensive and authoritative resource on control engineering. He has fully reorganized the text to reflect the technical advances achieved since the last edition and has expanded its contents to include the multidisciplinary perspective that is making control engineering a critical component in so many fields. Now expanded from one to three volumes, The Control Handbook, Second Edition organizes cutting-edge contributions from more than 200 leading experts. The second volume, Control System Applications, includes 35 entirely new applications organized by subject area. Covering the design and use of control systems, this volume includes applications for: Automobiles, including PEM fuel cells Aerospace Industrial control of machines and processes Biomedical uses, including robotic surgery and drug discovery and development Electronics and communication networks Other applications are included in a section that reflects the multidisciplinary nature of control system work. These include applications for the construction of financial portfolios, earthquake response control for civil structures, quantum estimation and control, and the modeling and control of air conditioning and refrigeration systems. As with the first edition, the new edition not only stands as a record of accomplishment in control engineering but provides researchers with the means to make further advances. Progressively organized, the other two volumes in the set include: Control System Fundamentals Control System Advanced Methods

Advanced Vehicle Control

Autor: Johannes Edelmann
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351966707
File Size: 35,16 MB
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The AVEC symposium is a leading international conference in the fields of vehicle dynamics and advanced vehicle control, bringing together scientists and engineers from academia and automotive industry. The first symposium was held in 1992 in Yokohama, Japan. Since then, biennial AVEC symposia have been established internationally and have considerably contributed to the progress of technology in automotive research and development. In 2016 the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control (AVEC’16) was held in Munich, Germany, from 13th to 16th of September 2016. The symposium was hosted by the Munich University of Applied Sciences. AVEC’16 puts a special focus on automatic driving, autonomous driving functions and driver assist systems, integrated control of interacting control systems, controlled suspension systems, active wheel torque distribution, and vehicle state and parameter estimation. 132 papers were presented at the symposium and are published in these proceedings as full paper contributions. The papers review the latest research developments and practical applications in highly relevant areas of vehicle control, and may serve as a reference for researchers and engineers.

Integrated Vehicle Dynamics And Control

Autor: Wuwei Chen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118380029
File Size: 57,22 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A comprehensive overview of integrated vehicle system dynamics exploring the fundamentals and new and emerging developments This book provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle system dynamics and control, particularly in the area of integrated vehicle dynamics control. The book consists of two parts, (1) development of individual vehicle system dynamic model and control methodology; and (2) development of integrated vehicle dynamic model and control methodology. The first part focuses on investigating vehicle system dynamics and control according to the three directions of vehicle motions, including longitudinal, vertical, and lateral. Corresponding individual control systems, e.g. Anti-lock Brake System (ABS), Active Suspension, Electric Power Steering System (EPS), are introduced and developed respectively. Particular attention is paid in the second part of the book to develop integrated vehicle dynamic control system. Integrated vehicle dynamics control system is an advanced system that coordinates all the chassis control systems and components to improve the overall vehicle performance including safety, comfort, and economy. Integrated vehicle dynamics control has been an important research topic in the area of vehicle dynamics and control over the past two decades. The research topic on integrated vehicle dynamics control is investigated comprehensively and intensively in the book through both theoretical analysis and experimental study. In this part, two types of control architectures, i.e. centralized and multi-layer, have been developed and compared to demonstrate their advantages and disadvantages. Integrated vehicle dynamics control is a hot topic in automotive research; this is one of the few books to address both theory and practice of integrated systems Comprehensively explores the research area of integrated vehicle dynamics and control through both theoretical analysis and experimental study Addresses a full range of vehicle system topics including tyre dynamics, chassis systems, control architecture, 4 wheel steering system and design of control systems using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) Method

Dynamics Of Vehicles On Roads And Tracks Volume 1

Autor: Maksym Spiryagin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351057243
File Size: 72,19 MB
Format: PDF
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The International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks is the leading international gathering of scientists and engineers from academia and industry in the field of ground vehicle dynamics to present and exchange their latest ideas and breakthroughs. The International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics (IAVSD) was established in Vienna in 1977 and has since held its biennial symposia throughout Europe and in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa and China. The IAVSD, while celebrating its first 40 years, held the 25th Symposium at Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia in August 2017. The symposium was hosted by the Centre for Railway Engineering at Central Queensland University. The papers presented at the symposium are now published in these Proceedings to provide a comprehensive review of the latest innovative developments and practical applications in road and rail vehicle dynamics. The papers will contribute greatly to a better understanding of related problems and serve as a reference for researchers and engineers active in this specialised field. IAVSD2017 focused on the following topics related to road and rail vehicles and trains: dynamics and stability vibration and comfort suspension steering traction and braking active safety systems advanced driver assistance systems autonomous road and rail vehicles adhesion and friction wheel-rail contact tyre-road interaction aerodynamics and crosswind pantograph-catenary dynamics modelling and simulation driver-vehicle interaction field and laboratory testing vehicle control and mechatronics performance and optimisation instrumentation and condition monitoring environmental considerations

Dynamics Of Vehicles On Roads And Tracks Volume 1

Autor: Maksym Spiryagin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351057251
File Size: 73,17 MB
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The International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks is the leading international gathering of scientists and engineers from academia and industry in the field of ground vehicle dynamics to present and exchange their latest innovations and breakthroughs. Established in Vienna in 1977, the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics (IAVSD) has since held its biennial symposia throughout Europe and in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa and China. The main objectives of IAVSD are to promote the development of the science of vehicle dynamics and to encourage engineering applications of this field of science, to inform scientists and engineers on the current state-of-the-art in the field of vehicle dynamics and to broaden contacts among persons and organisations of the various countries engaged in scientific research and development in the field of vehicle dynamics and related areas. IAVSD 2017, the 25th Symposium of the International Association of Vehicle System Dynamics was hosted by the Centre for Railway Engineering at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia in August 2017. The symposium focused on the following topics related to road and rail vehicles and trains: dynamics and stability; vibration and comfort; suspension; steering; traction and braking; active safety systems; advanced driver assistance systems; autonomous road and rail vehicles; adhesion and friction; wheel-rail contact; tyre-road interaction; aerodynamics and crosswind; pantograph-catenary dynamics; modelling and simulation; driver-vehicle interaction; field and laboratory testing; vehicle control and mechatronics; performance and optimization; instrumentation and condition monitoring; and environmental considerations. Providing a comprehensive review of the latest innovative developments and practical applications in road and rail vehicle dynamics, the 213 papers now published in these proceedings will contribute greatly to a better understanding of related problems and will serve as a reference for researchers and engineers active in this specialised field. Volume 1 contains 78 papers under the subject heading Road.

Vehicle Dynamics Estimation Using Kalman Filtering

Autor: Moustapha Doumiati
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118579003
File Size: 52,56 MB
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Vehicle dynamics and stability have been of considerable interest for a number of years. The obvious dilemma is that people naturally desire to drive faster and faster yet expect their vehicles to be “infinitely” stable and safe during all normal and emergency maneuvers. For the most part, people pay little attention to the limited handling potential of their vehicles until some unusual behavior is observed that often results in accidents and even fatalities. This book presents several model-based estimation methods which involve information from current potential-integrable sensors. Improving vehicle control and stabilization is possible when vehicle dynamic variables are known. The fundamental problem is that some essential variables related to tire/road friction are difficult to measure because of technical and economical reasons. Therefore, these data must be estimated. It is against this background, that this book’s objective is to develop estimators in order to estimate the vehicle’s load transfer, the sideslip angle, and the vertical and lateral tire/road forces using a roll model. The proposed estimation processes are based on the state observer (Kalman filtering) theory and the dynamic response of a vehicle instrumented with standard sensors. These estimators are able to work in real time in normal and critical driving situations. Performances are tested using an experimental car in real driving situations. This is exactly the focus of this book, providing students, technicians and engineers from the automobile field with a theoretical basis and some practical algorithms useful for estimating vehicle dynamics in real-time during vehicle motion.