A Singularly Unfeminine Profession

Autor: Mary K Gaillard
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814644242
File Size: 70,85 MB
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In 1981 Mary K Gaillard became the first woman on the physics faculty at the University of California at Berkeley. Her career as a theoretical physicist spanned the period from the inception — in the late 1960s and early 1970s — of what is now known as the Standard Model of particle physics and its experimental confirmation, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012. A Singularly Unfeminine Profession recounts Gaillard's experiences as a woman in a very male-dominated field, while tracing the development of the Standard Model as she witnessed it and participated in it. The generally nurturing environment of her childhood and college years, as well as experiences as an undergraduate in particle physics laboratories and as a graduate student at Columbia University — which cemented her passion for particle physics — left her unprepared for the difficulties that she confronted as a second year graduate student in Paris, and later at CERN, another particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. The development of the Standard Model, as well as attempts to go beyond it and aspects of early universe physics, are described through the lens of Gaillard's own work, in a language written for a lay audience. Contents:PrefaceBeginningsHollins and Paris: To Paris and BackBrookhaven and ColumbiaParis Again: The Worst YearCERNFermilab: Charm, The Delta I=½ Rule, Search for CharmCERN Again: Two Weeks in the Soviet Union, The Higgs Particle, Gluon Jets, Bottom Quarks, Penguins and GUTsUnrest: Annecy: SupergutsReturningMy Survival MechanismAfterlife: Physics at a Trillion Electron Volts, Physics at the Planck EnergyReflectionsAcronymsGlossary Readership: Students interested in women's issues and/or particle physics, professionals interested in women's issues and/or the history of the development of the Standard Model, general public interested in women's issues and/or particle physics. Key Features:Professor Gaillard is a leading particle theorist who has participated in many important contributions to the development of the Standard Model, including the prediction of the quark mass and of gluon jets. She is a recipient of the E O Lawrence Award and the J J Sakurai prize. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical SocietyAs a woman in physics at a time when there were very few, her account of the history of the Standard Model offers a unique perspective on both the physics and the issue of gender bias in a very male-dominated fieldThe history of the development of the Standard Model, as well as attempts to understand deeper physics underlying that model and concomitant developments in cosmology, is described in conjunction with her own research and life experiencesKeywords:Women in Physics;Autobiography;Particles and Fields;CosmologyReview: “Her frank autobiography is an honest, revelatory account of her many discoveries, made as she battled gender bias and faced the demands of raising three children …Gaillard became a grande dame of particle physics, with positions on many committees that shaped particle-physics research in the United States and, ultimately, the world. The story is as much about a thrilling period in particle physics as about Gaillard's struggle to establish herself in a male-dominated sphere … As a colleague comments in the book: 'She did it all!'” Nature "It was clearly a hard time to be a successful theorist, and a woman, and Gaillard's account makes for a compelling tale. She was talented, determined and tough — she made the system accommodate her. Life isn't like that now, and we have people like her to thank for it." Times Higher Education

Memorial Volume For Stanley Mandelstam

Autor: Berkovits Nathan Jacob
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813207868
File Size: 74,75 MB
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Stanley Mandelstam (1928–2016) was one of the most influential and respected particle theorists. Coming as a young chemical engineer from South Africa to study theoretical physics in England, he quickly became a leading physicist in his field. With his deep understanding of quantum field theory, he pioneered the development of the analytic S-matrix theory as well as the path-dependent formulations for quantum gauge theories and for quantum general relativity. They are being actively used for the electroweak theory and having their imprints in lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity. Also he elucidated the mechanisms for quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics, constructed non-perturbative bosonization methods in 1+1 dimensions, and proved the perturbative finiteness and β=0 of N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. His work also led to the discovery of dual resonance models, which in turn became superstring theory. He was a leader in these developments, devoting much of his later years to the proof that the theory is perturbatively finite so it can be considered as a contender for the theory of quantum gravity. He was also a very modest and friendly man, impressing everyone with his sharp intellect as well as his humanity. This volume contains essays written by many of his friends and students, including both detailed reports on his scientific achievements as well as personal reminiscences. Also collected in the volume are some selected reprints of Mandelstam's early seminal papers and abstracts of selected papers representing the full spectrum of his contributions. Contents: Recollections of Stanley Mandelstam (Geoffrey Chew) Scientific Biography of Stanley Mandelstam: 1955–1980 (Charles B Thorn) Scientific Biography of Stanley Mandelstam: 1981–2016 (Nathan Berkovits) Stanley Mandelstam: Brief Biography and Selected Publications with Commentary (Ling-Lie Chau) Stanley Mandelstam: The Early Years at a 'Most Stimulating Theoretical Group' (Sabine Lee) The Guiding Influence of Stanley Mandelstam, from S-Matrix Theory to String Theory (Peter Goddard) Remembering Stanley: From a Source of Inspiration to a Fair Strong Competitor (G Veneziano) Stanley Mandelstam and Me and Life on the Light-cone (Lars Brink) Reminiscences of Stanley Mandelstam (John H Schwarz) Stanley Mandelstam and My Postdoctoral Years at Berkeley (Steven Frautschi) Reminiscences on Stanley Mandelstam (Korkut Bardakci) Remembering a Gentle Giant of Physics (Charles Sommerfield) Grad School with Stanley Mandelstam (Joseph Polchinski) Remembering a Gentle Giant of Physics (Mary K Gaillard) Mandelstam & NAL (Pierre Ramond) The Influence of Stanley Mandelstam (Michael B Green) My Interaction with Stanley Mandelstam (Paolo Di Vecchia) My Advisor Stanley (Sang-Jin Sin) Stanley Mandelstam My Graduate Supervisor (Arjun Berera) Reprints and Abstracts of Selected Publications: The Mandelstam Representations in the Mandelstam Variables for S-Matrices: Determination of the Pion-Nucleon Scattering Amplitude from Dispersion Relations and Unitarity. General Theory Analytic Properties of Transition Amplitudes in Perturbation Theory Two-Dimensional Representations of Scattering Amplitudes and Their Applications The S-Matrix Approach: Theory of Low-Energy Pion–Pion Interactions Dispersion Relations in Strong-Coupling Physics The Mandelstam Path-Field Formulation for Quantum Gauge Theories and Feynman Rules: Quantum Electrodynamics Without Potentia

The Only Woman In The Room

Autor: Eileen Pollack
Publisher: Beacon Press
ISBN: 0807046612
File Size: 43,32 MB
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A bracingly honest exploration of why there are still so few women in the hard sciences, mathematics, engineering, and computer science In 2005, when Lawrence Summers, then president of Harvard, asked why so few women, even today, achieve tenured positions in the hard sciences, Eileen Pollack set out to find the answer. A successful fiction writer, Pollack had grown up in the 1960s and ’70s dreaming of a career as a theoretical astrophysicist. Denied the chance to take advanced courses in science and math, she nonetheless made her way to Yale. There, despite finding herself far behind the men in her classes, she went on to graduate summa cum laude, with honors, as one of the university’s first two women to earn a bachelor of science degree in physics. And yet, isolated, lacking in confidence, starved for encouragement, she abandoned her ambition to become a physicist. Years later, spurred by the suggestion that innate differences in scientific and mathematical aptitude might account for the dearth of tenured female faculty at Summer’s institution, Pollack thought back on her own experiences and wondered what, if anything, had changed in the intervening decades. Based on six years interviewing her former teachers and classmates, as well as dozens of other women who had dropped out before completing their degrees in science or found their careers less rewarding than they had hoped, The Only Woman in the Room is a bracingly honest, no-holds-barred examination of the social, interpersonal, and institutional barriers confronting women—and minorities—in the STEM fields. This frankly personal and informed book reflects on women’s experiences in a way that simple data can’t, documenting not only the more blatant bias of another era but all the subtle disincentives women in the sciences still face. The Only Woman in the Room shows us the struggles women in the sciences have been hesitant to admit, and provides hope for changing attitudes and behaviors in ways that could bring far more women into fields in which even today they remain seriously underrepresented. Named one of the notable nonfiction books of 2015 by The Washington Post From the Hardcover edition.

Shame The Devil

Autor: Debra Brenegan
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438435878
File Size: 58,64 MB
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The remarkable and true story of the nineteenth-century novelist, journalist, and feminist Fanny Fern.

A Journey Into Gravity And Spacetime

Autor: John Archibald Wheeler
Publisher: W. H. Freeman
ISBN: 9780716760344
File Size: 17,65 MB
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Gravity is not a force acting at a distance. It is mass gripping spacetime, telling it how to curve, and spacetime gripping mass, telling it how to move. According to preeminent physicist John Archibald Wheeler, gravity makes the closest connection between the world we see around us and the inner-most workings of the universe. In this imaginative volume, Wheeler explores gravity and spacetime by applying Einstein's battle-tested theory to both familiar and exotic phomomena--everything from flying tennis balls, to hurling gravity waves from crashing stars, the motion of the planets, and the collapse of a star into a black hole. It's a provocative, revealing, fully engaging scientific journey led by a frontline participant in the most important work in physics in the last 50 years.

Aerodynamic And Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Space Mission Vehicles

Autor: Antonio Viviani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319362434
File Size: 14,78 MB
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Presenting an up-to-date view on the most important space vehicle configurations, this book contains detailed analyses for several different type of space mission profiles while considering important factors such as aerodynamic loads, aerodynamic heating, vehicle stability and landing characteristics. With that in mind, the authors provide a detailed overview on different state-of-the-art themes of hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, and consider different space vehicle shapes useful for different space mission objectives. These include: · Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) · Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) · Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) · Flying Test Bed (FTB). Throughout Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Space Mission Vehicles many examples are given, with detailed computations and results for the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of all such configurations. Moreover, a final chapter on future launchers is provided and an Appendix on a possible manned mission to Mars closes the book. This work can be used as a reference for modelling and design techniques, for students intending to enter aerospace industrial careers, and to support both academics and engineers working in the field of space vehicle design. This book has been awarded the Basic Science Book award 2016 by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), presented during the 67th International Astronautical Congress (IAC2016) held in September 2016 in Guadalajara, Mexico.

Feeling Gender

Autor: Harriet Bjerrum Nielsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349950823
File Size: 63,45 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book explores how feelings about gender have changed over three interrelated generations of women and men of different social classes during the twentieth century. The author explores the ways in which generational experiences are connected, what is continued, what triggers gradual or abrupt changes between generations - and between women and men within these generations. The book explores how new feelings of gender gradually change gender norms from within, and how they contribute to the incremental creation of new social practices.​​​ Nielsen suggests a new way of conducting psychosocial research that focuses on generational psychological patterns of gender identities and gendered subjectivities in times of change from a psychoanalytic perspective. Combining generational and longitudinal research, the book works with temporality as a theoretical as well as a methodological dimension. Theoretically it combines Raymond Williams' idea of "a structure of feeling" with the work of Eric Fromm, Hans Loewald, Nancy Chodorow and Jessica Benjamin.

Advanced Calculus

Autor: Pietro-Luciano Buono
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110438224
File Size: 51,71 MB
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This textbook offers a high-level introduction to multi-variable differential calculus. Differential forms are introduced incrementally in the narrative, eventually leading to a unified treatment of Green’s, Stokes’ and Gauss’ theorems. Furthermore, the presentation offers a natural route to differential geometry. Contents: Calculus of Vector Functions Tangent Spaces and 1-forms Line Integrals Differential Calculus of Mappings Applications of Differential Calculus Double and Triple Integrals Wedge Products and Exterior Derivatives Integration of Forms Stokes’ Theorem and Applications